Dinosaurs - Jurassic Encounter

Apatosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Lumbering through the flatlands, Apatosaurus consumed vast amounts of vegetation (200kg daily) to satisfy the needs of its immense body size. Apatosaurus body size was its main form of protection, which guarded against predators alongside its 50-foot tail. The tail was used like a giant whip against attackers creating a warning sound alerting others in the group of danger.

Brachiosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Brachiosaurus was one of the tallest and largest dinosaurs that walked the earth. It had a long neck, small head, and relatively short, thick tail. Brachiosaurus was about 85 feet (26 m) long and weighed between over 35 tons. Brachiosaurus walked on four legs and like the other Brachiosaurids, but unlike most dinosaurs, its front legs were longer than its hind legs. Brachiosaurus was a herbivore, a plant eater. As a Sauropod, the intelligence of Brachiosaurus was the among the lowest of the dinosaurs.

Velociraptor
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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With a stance between the size of a Great Dane and a large turkey, Velociraptor was smaller than its portrayal in popular culture, but it was still a fearsome hunter. In September 2007, researchers found evidence of quill knobs on the forearm of a Velociraptor, which implied the presence of feathers. Current research shows that this non-avian Theropod was probably warm-blooded and most likely had a downy or feathery coat to retain heat and provide energy to hunt.

Spinosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Spinosaurus was a huge meat-eating dinosaur that had a series of spines on its back. Spinosaurus was bipedal (it walked on two legs). It was about 40-50 feet long (12-15 m) and weighed over 4 tons. Spinosaurus’ huge spinal sail may have been used for regulating its temperature. It was a carnivore, a meat eater with huge teeth and powerful jaws. It hunted and ate other dinosaurs and large fish. Spinosaurus walked on two muscular legs and was a relatively fast, two-legged runner. As an advanced Theropod, Spinosaurus’ intelligence was high among the dinosaurs.

Apatosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Carnotaurus was a large, bipedal (it walked on two legs), meat-eating dinosaur that looked a bit like a bull. It had two, knobby eyebrow-horns (hence its name), a small skull, extremely tiny arms (even smaller than those of T- Rex) and a long, thin tail. It may have had partial binocular vision (unlike most other dinosaurs) since the eyes were set facing slightly forwards.

Styracosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Styracosaurus was a dinosaur that walked on four short legs. This large plant-eater had a six-spiked frill projecting from the back of its skull. These spikes and the horn provided protection from predators, and were possibly used in mating rituals and rivalry. It had a short, thick, pointed tail, a large, bulky body, a large skull and a beak.

Iguanodon
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Iguanodon averaged about 30 feet long, 16 feet tall, 9 feet tall at the hips and may have weighed 4 to 5 tons. Iguanodon was most likely a herding animal, as evidenced by bone bed discoveries in Belgium. In these bone beds, dozens of Iguanodon fossils were found together, suggesting that they congregated during their lives. Iguanodon was an Ornithopod, whose intelligence was midway among the dinosaurs. Iguanodon could run on two legs or walk on four; it was a relatively fast dinosaur. Iguanodon was named by Gideon A. Mantell in 1825; its teeth and a few bones were found in 1822 in Sussex, Southern England.

Parasaurolophus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Parasaurolophus was a long-crested, duck-billed dinosaur. Parasaurolophus grew to be about 40 feet (12 m) long and 8 feet (2.8 m) tall at the hips. It weighed about 2 tons. Parasaurolophus was a herbivore, eating pine needles, leaves, and twigs. They may have migrated from shorelines to higher ground to reproduce. Parasaurolophus was an Ornithopod, whose intelligence was midway among the dinosaurs. Parasaurolophus walked and ran on two legs, and was a relatively fast dinosaur.

Pachycephalosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Pachycephalosaurus was a dome-headed dinosaur. Its huge head housed an incredibly thick skull, a tiny brain, and large eyes. Its rounded skull was up to 10 inches thick (25 cm). Pachycephalosaurus had a good sense of smell and bumpy knobs on its snout and along the rear of its skull. This plant-eater had short forelimbs and a stiff tail (which had a distinctive mesh of interwoven tendons surrounding its rear portion). Pachycephalosaurs were herding dinosaurs that lived in small groups in coastal and upland regions. Running was probably the first line of self-defense.

Amargasaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Amargasaurus was a very strange Sauropod, it had two rows of mane with long thorns, but its use is unknown. From the Mesozoic Jurassic to Cretaceous Period, Amargasaurus roamed the southern hemisphere across the supercontinent of Gondwana. Amargasaurus was a small lizard at the foot of dinosaurs, about 10 meters long. It is a four-legged herbivore dinosaur, has a long and flat skull, long neck. The fork dragon is a similar creature and the closest relative.

Tyrannosaurus Rex
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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As the last great carnivore of the Cretaceous Period, Tyrannosaurus Rex was an efficient killer stalking the North American landscape. With a specially strengthened nose structure, it could deliver bone splintering, crushing bites to both prey and combatants, including others of its own species. The strength of the Tyrannosaurus Rex’s lower jaw could deliver 10,000 newtons of bite-force, the equivalent power needed to lift a semi-trailer. Although T-Rex’s forelimbs look weak, the bones exhibit extremely thick cortical bone, indicating that they were developed to withstand heavy loads.

Pterosaurs
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Pterosaurs were an order of flying reptiles that lived during the time of the dinosaurs. The Pterosaurs ranged in size from a few inches to over 40 feet. They had hollow bones, were lightly built, and had small bodies, large brains and good eyesight. Pterosaurs were carnivores; they ate fish (which they caught at the surface of the oceans), mollusks, crabs, plankton, insects and dead animals on land.

Triceratops
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Despite appearances, Triceratops was no gentle, plant-eating giant. Many fossil records show damage to Triceratops bones that could have occurred in combat with rivals or predators. Aside from inter-group displays of domination, its horns were its deadly weapons and were also used in mating displays. The solid plated neck frill would have offered some protection against predatory bites (such as that of the Tyrannosaurus Rex) and may have regulated body temperature.

Dilophosaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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To date, Dilophosaurus were the largest meat-eater of the early Jurassic Period. With an opposable digit, it was able to grasp prey tightly while its powerful claws were able to tear flesh from both living prey and dead carcasses. The double crests above the snout were not attached to the skull and may have been strictly for display purposes, much like a peacock. If so, the female of the species would most likely not have had a crest.

Diplodocus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Diplodocus was a long-necked, whip-tailed giant, measuring about 90 feet (27 m) long with a 26-foot (8 m) long neck and a 45-foot (14 m) long tail, but its head was less than 2 feet long. It was among the tallest land animals ever to walk the earth. Its nostrils were at the top of its head and it had peg-like teeth, but only in the front of the jaws. Its front legs were shorter than its back legs with elephant-like, five-toed feet. One toe on each foot had a thumb claw, probably for protection. A fossilized Diplodocus skin impression reveals that it had a row of spines running down its back.

Herrerasaurus
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Herrerasaurus was a lightly built bipedal (it walked on two legs), carnivore with a long tail and a relatively small head. Its length is estimated at 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 ft) and its hip height at more than 1.1 meters (3.3ft). lt may have weighed around 350 kilograms and the skull measured 56 centimeters (1.8 ft) in length. Smaller specimens had skulls about 30 centimeters (1ft) long.

Dimetrodon
Jurassic Encounter Dinosaurs

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Dimetrodon was a sail-backed meat-eating animal that lived during the Permian Period approximately 280 million year ago, long before the dinosaurs evolve. It was a so-called reptile, an ancestor of the mammals. Dimetrodon was about 11.5 feet (3.5m) long and weighed roughly 550 pounds (250 kg). It had a large sail-like flap of skin along its back, dense with blood vessels. The sail was supported by long, bony spines, each of which grew out of a separate spinal vertebra (a bone in the back). The sail may have been a structure used to absorb and release heat. The sail may have also been used for mating and dominance rituals and also for making it look much larger than it was to predators. Dimetrodon had sharp teeth and clawed feet.